离骚（节选）屈原跪敷衽以陈辞兮，耿吾既得此中正。驷玉虬以乘鹥兮，溘埃风余上征。朝发轫于苍梧兮，夕余至乎县圃。欲少留此灵琐兮，日忽忽其将暮。吾令羲和弭节兮，望崦嵫而勿迫。路漫漫其修远兮，吾将上下而求索。饮余马於咸池兮，总余辔乎扶桑。折若木以拂日兮，聊逍遥以相羊。前望舒使先驱兮，后飞廉使奔属。鸾皇为余先戒兮，雷师告余以未具。吾令凤鸟飞腾兮，继之以日夜。飘风屯其相离兮，帅云霓而来御。纷总总其离合兮，斑陆离其上下。吾令帝阍开关兮，倚阊阖而望予。时暧暧其将罢兮，结幽兰而延儜。世溷浊而不分兮，好蔽美而嫉妒。【白话译文】郭沫若我跪在自己的衣脚上诉了衷情，我的心中耿耿地已得到了稳定。我要以凤凰为车而以玉虬为马，飘忽地御着长风向那天上旅行。我清晨才打从那苍梧之野动身，我晚上便落到昆仑山上的悬圃。我想在这神灵的区域勾留片时，无奈匆匆的日轮看看便要入暮。我便叫日御的羲和把车慢慢地开，就望见日将入的崦嵫也没用赶快，旅行的途程是十分长远而又长远，我要到上天下地去寻求我的所爱。且让我的玉虬就在咸池饮水，且让我的乘风就在扶桑休息，折取若木的桠枝来敲打日头，我暂时留在这儿逍遥而踯躅。想遣月御望舒替我做着前驱，想遣风伯飞廉替我做着后卫，想遣天鸡鸾凰替我作着鼓吹——雷师走来告诉道：一切未曾准备。我便令我的乘凤展翅飞腾，即使入了夜境也无须停顿，飘风聚集着都在恐后争先，率领着云和霓来表示欢迎。我们是蓬蓬勃勃地时离时合，我们是光辉灿烂地或上或下。我叫那天国的门子替我开门，他倚着天门只是把我望望。时辰是昏蒙地快到末日的光景，我纽结着所佩的幽兰不能移步。天地间是这样混浊而不别贤愚，总爱抹杀人的美德而生出嫉妒。【英译文】杨宪益、戴乃迭 译Soiling my gown, to plead my case I kneeled;Th'ancestral voice the path to me revealed.Swift jade-green dragons, birds with plumage gold,I harnessed to the whirlwind, and behold,At daybreak from the land of plane-trees grey,I came to paradise ere close of day.I wished within the sacred grove to stay,The sun had sunk, and darkness wrapped the way;The driver of the sun I bade to stay,Ere with the setting rays we haste away.The way was long, and wrapped in gloom did seem,As I urged on to seek my vanished dream.The dragons quenched their thirst beside the lakeWhere bathed the sun, whilst I upon the brakeFastened my reins; a golden bough I soughtTo brush the sun, and tarred there in sport.The pale moon's charioteer I then bade lead,The master of the winds swiftly succeed;Before, the royal blue bird cleared the way;The lord of thunder urged me to delay.I bade the phoenix scan the heaven wide;But vainly day and night its course it tried;The gathering whirlwinds drove it from my sight,Rushing with lowering clouds to check my flight;Sifting and merging in the firmament,Above, below, in various hues they went.The gate-keeper of heaven I bade give place,But leaning on his door he scanned my face;The day grew dark, and now was nearly spent;Idly my orchids into wreaths I bent.The virtuous and the vile in darkness merged;They veiled my virtue, by their envy urged.
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Dragon Boat Festival in ChinaThe Dragon Boat Festival (Duanwu Festival, Duānwǔ Jié, Double Fifth, Tuen Ng Jit) is a traditional holiday that commemorates the life and death of the famous Chinese scholar Qu Yuan (Chu Yuan). The festival occurs on the fifth day of the fifth month on the Chinese lunar calendar.The Dragon Boat Festival is a celebration where many eat rice dumplings (zongzi), drink realgar wine (xionghuangjiu), and race dragon boats. Other activities include hanging icons of Zhong Kui (a mythic guardian figure), hanging mugwort and calamus, taking long walks, writing spells and wearing perfumed medicine bags.All of these activities and games such as making an egg stand at noon were regarded by the ancients as an effective way of preventing disease, evil, while promoting good health and well-being. People sometimes wear talismans to fend off evil spirits or they may hang the picture of Zhong Kui, a guardian against evil spirits, on the door of their homes.In the Republic of China, the festival was also celebrated as 'Poets' Day' in honor of Qu Yuan, who is known as China's first poet. Chinese citizens traditionally throw bamboo leaves filled with cooked rice into the water and it is also customary to eat tzungtzu and rice dumplings.Qu YuanQu Yuan (c. 339 BC–unknown; alt. c. 340–278 BC) was a Chinese poet and minister who lived during the Warring States period of ancient China. He is known for his patriotism and contributions to classical poetry and verses, especially through the poems of the Chu Ci anthology (also known as The Songs of the South or Songs of Chu): a volume of poems attributed to or considered to be inspired by his verse writing. Together with the Shi Jing, the Chu Ci is one of the two great collections of ancient Chinese verse. He is also remembered as the supposed origin of the Dragon Boat Festival.Historical details about Qu Yuan's life are few, and his authorship of many Chu Ci poems have been questioned at length. However, he is widely accepted to have written Li Sao, the most well-known of the Chu Ci poems. The first known reference to Qu Yuan appears in a poem written in 174 BC by Jia Yi, an official from Luoyang who was slandered by jealous officials and banished to Changsha by Emperor Wen of Han. While traveling, he wrote a poem describing the similar fate of a previous 'Qu Yuan.' Eighty years later, the first known biography of Qu Yuan's life appeared in Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, though it contains a number of contradictory details.